The Semien Mountains Massif, also known as "The roof of Africa", with the snowcovered peak of Mount Ras Deshen. This mountain is 4543 metres high and is the fourth highest peak in the continent. Six hundred million years ago, the mountains were an enormous volcanic mass; rain and ice have carved deep fissures into them and rivers have continued the work of erosion, creating an incredible landscape: peaks and deep gorges.
Daytime temperatures range from 11,5° to 18°C (53° to 64°F). The rainfall averages 1.550 mm (60 inches) a year.
The park was created primarily to protect the Walia Ibex, a type of wild goat, and over 100 do live in the park now. There are also families of the Gelada Baboon, and the rare semien fox in the park. Over 50 species of birds have been reported to been seen in the Simien Mountains. To enjoy all this wildlife, it is possible to take a short walk or a longer walk of maybe 10 days.
Probably the easiest animal to see in this area is the gelada baboon, which is endemic to Ethiopia. These baboons are grass eaters and will be seen in family units in many areas, one male guarding his harem of females and young ones. They are also known as the 'bleeding heart baboon' as there are red areas on the chest that show the sexual state of the animal.
Birds of the area often provide spectacular aerobatic displays off the sheer cliffs, using the air currents peculiar to the terrain. Lammergeyers and choughs are present, as well as endemics such as the thick-billed raven, black-headed siskin, white-collared pigeon, wattled ibis, white-billed starling, spot-breasted plover, and white-backed black tit.